成交易和交易量

现代社会从未解决垃圾问题,只制造了没有垃圾的幻觉

????,无论是去年禁止进口洋垃圾,还是今年轰轰烈烈的垃圾分类运动,垃圾始终是萦绕在现代社会头上的幽灵,无法消化,难以处置,我们把废弃物从下水道冲走,又一卡车一卡车地把垃圾倾倒到城市的边缘,以为眼不见心为净,但它们又会以大米中的重金属,水源中的微塑料重新回流到我们的体内。,
,现代社会从来没有真正解决过垃圾的问题,只是制造了垃圾看不见的幻觉。垃圾背后,其实是我们如何与自然相处的问题,以及别忘记了处理、转移和承受垃圾之重的,那些看不见的廉价生命。,
,题图来自东方IC,本文来自微信公众号:回响编辑部(ID:huixiangjf),文:浩菊,来自:JiFeng Bookstore,
,莱奥尼亚居民们每天都在更新自己,为了给新事物让位,居民们不断地丢弃。清晨人行道上的垃圾车会一车一车地将包着昨日废弃物的塑料袋运走。人们并不在意垃圾被运往何处,城外的垃圾日复一日地堆积,成为“坚不可摧的堡垒”,垃圾山越堆越高,似乎只要一个罐头盒就能引发一场垃圾雪崩,“整个城市就将被淹没在她始终力图摆脱的过去中”。,
,这是意大利小说家卡尔维诺在《看不见的城市》中讲述的故事,预言般地展示了现代生活的“末日图景”。,
,如今,“丢弃”成为不自知的日常惯性,垃圾被包裹在塑料袋内,通过庞大的城市环卫系统转移出生活的视线,我们可以安然自适地享受“用完即弃”与不断消费的生活。,
,,看不见的城市
,[意大利] 伊塔洛·卡尔维诺 / 张密 / 译林出版社 / 2012-4,
,只是,被转移的垃圾并没有消失。在农耕时代,废物往往可以被重新纳入生态循环中,而现代工业则制造了无法被纳入自然物质循环的物质,也制造了绝对的剩余物。,
,然而,有趣的是,垃圾在现代城市却成为“不可见”的物质,如文化研究学者鲍曼所言,垃圾是这个时代被严格保守的秘密,“废弃物是所有生产中最羞于被提及,最黑暗的秘密”。,
,为什么垃圾必须被排斥于想象之外?垃圾意味着本质意义上的危险、不洁么?这种文化观念与想象是如何被建构的?资本主义文化逻辑是如同利用“垃圾回收”与“垃圾处理”来合理化垃圾的生产?,
,如果说主流意识形态将垃圾问题转化为技术发展的问题,那么那些具有反思性的纪录影像则展示垃圾内置的地理不平衡与暴力性。垃圾转移的路径展示着城市化与全球化进程中的资源剥夺和暴力,原本的分工不均衡规定了垃圾转移的路径,同时垃圾转移又重新生成了废弃化的空间。,
,最后,垃圾本身具有腐蚀性、毒性,威胁在地生态与生命,垃圾是如何将承受垃圾的人与非人生命卷入一场灾难,而我们如何理解位居全球垃圾贸易体系底端的劳工的生命困境?为什么他们愿意从事对自身生命有害的工作呢?,
,废弃、现代性与不可见的垃圾,
,“丢弃”的日常实践赋予了垃圾这样的想象:绝对的死亡、废物与无用。但是垃圾并非绝对的无意义,而隐含着文化秩序的逻辑。研究污物重要的文化学者玛丽·道格拉斯(Mary Douglas)在论着《洁净与危险》中阐述了污物的社会建构性——并没有本质意义上的污垢,污物之所以是污物,在于它位置不当以及对秩序的冒犯,如“鞋子本身不是肮脏的,然而把它放到餐桌上就是肮脏的”。进而言之,垃圾并非孤立的物质,而意味着一系列的秩序以及社会分类的规范。,
,垃圾,即是社会秩序的剩余物,是被特定的社会系统划定为无用、可废弃的物质。由此,垃圾研究的关键在于阐述“垃圾如何生产”以及对规范性观念的批判与反思。也就是说,理解垃圾的关键之处并不在于垃圾本身,而在于生成垃圾的具体的历史文化语境。,
,,洁净与危险,[英]玛丽·道格拉斯 / 黄剑波 / 民族出版社 / 2008-9,
,现代垃圾的生成与“用完即弃”的习惯养成密切相关,丢弃与物质的使用价值无关,而成为文化习惯,尚存使用价值的物质也会被废弃。垃圾研究学者盖伊·霍金(Gay Hawkins)在论着The ethics of Waste: How we relate to rubbish中大致梳理丢弃文化养成的社会历史。,
,首先,19世纪60年代一次性纸制用品的发明与推广形成了现代洁净、卫生的观念。医学上“看不见的细菌”的论述建构全新的卫生体系,使得一次性纸制品获得伦理、科学的正名。20世纪20年代,便利、效率的经济学修辞崛起促进了更多一次性产品的生产,例如打包食品、塑料手套、垃圾袋等产品被推广,试图打造极具效率、快速、方便的家庭生活。技术强化了现代人对效率的崇尚、时间的压缩。,
,而最重要的是,现代工业发展与大众消费社会的到来加速了物的死亡速度。消费社会彻底改变了人与物之间的关系,商品需要被更为快速地抛弃,才能有更多的物的生产。鲍德里亚在《消费社会》开篇即指出,我们生活于“物的时代”,现代见证了物的惊人的增长和涌现,同时也加速了物的死亡。消费逻辑建立起人与商品之间短暂而瞬息、永远无法满足的欲望关系,物的废弃、死亡成为必然。,
,,消费社会,[法] 让·鲍德里亚 / 刘成富 / 南京大学出版社 / 2014-10,
,关于现代秩序与废物之间的关联,学者鲍曼的分析更为彻底。在论着《废弃的生命:现代性及其弃儿》,鲍曼认为废弃内在于现代文明生产秩序内部。,
,如果说,前现代的农业耕种体现的是连续的、死后重生、生生不息的循环,那么现代的采矿则是破裂和间断性的象征,新事物的生产来自于对旧事物的废弃和破坏,所有的新事物需要腐烂老死以为更新的事物让路,“采矿的每一步都没有回头,它是单方向的运动,不能取消,不能挽回。采矿的历史是被废弃滤尽的矿脉的坟墓”。内置于现代性的流动性无时无刻不在制造着废弃物,制造着“走向垃圾堆”的物品。,
,鲍曼认为,这种强制性的废弃、流动镌刻在我们的审美认知、注意力、时尚美学以及日常交往和不断流变的生活之中:“万事万物自诞生之日开始,就贴上了死亡即将来临的标签;每一样事物在离开生产线的时候,都被贴上了一张‘在此日期前使用’的标签”。,
,,废弃的生命:现代性及其弃儿,[英]齐格蒙特·鲍曼 / 谷蕾 / 胡欣 / 江苏人民出版社 / 2006-11,
,吊诡的是,现代世界承诺了一个“没有垃圾”的现实,垃圾消失了。,
,齐泽克在纪录片《受审视的生活》(Examined Life: Philosophy is in the Streets)的开篇站在垃圾堆旁边讲述日常生活对垃圾的感知的缺席:“在我们对日常现实的感知中,这些东西(垃圾)从我们的世界中消失了,当你去厕所,屎消失了,你冲走了它,当然,理智上你知道屎在那里,然而在你最基础经验的内核之中,屎从你的世界中消失”。,
,倚赖于下水道、垃圾箱、垃圾车、垃圾站等层层相扣的现代城市卫生处理系统,我们将垃圾清理出生活。只不过,看似光鲜整洁的现实一直笼罩在垃圾的魅影之下。,
,约翰·史坎兰在论着《关于垃圾》(On Garbage)中认为垃圾是人类工业和资本主义文明中被压抑的“物质潜意识”,城市文明秩序是通过垃圾的排斥建立起来的,垃圾在城市中是鬼魅的,幽灵式的存在(ghostly presence),那些散落的被清理的垃圾会从掩埋的坟墓中爬出来,会幻化成各种形式(弥散于空气、水、土壤之中),回到现实,回到身体内部。,
,,纪录片《受审视的生活》海报,
,我们随手丢出去的垃圾袋、牙膏壳、牙刷亦或是清洁剂,可能会被压碎处理,被倾倒到海洋,被海洋生物摄入其体内,最终通过食物链重新回到我们的身体内;亦或是被焚烧、填埋,渗透到地下水、土地、空气中,弥散于我们生活的环境,并重塑我们的身体。,
,垃圾的分类和回收,制造了没有垃圾的幻觉,
,近年来,垃圾越来越作为重要的环境问题被纳入生态纪录片的再现与表述,然而主流的生态纪录片往往将垃圾描述为一场生态灾难,一个亟待解决的环境议题。另一方面,纪录片最终又会寻求“可持续性”的方式消除垃圾——比如垃圾回收、垃圾分类、垃圾堆肥等,从而消除“垃圾”所带来的焦虑与不安。,
,人们寄予技术的进步、回收体系的健全来化解这个令人恐惧与不安的现代灾难。例如,纪录片《塑料海洋》(A Plastic Ocean)以庄重的画外音展示了美国海军舰队如何利用高科技的清洁工艺实现垃圾的无害化。纪录片《废物》(Trashed)叙述者杰瑞米·艾恩斯最终诉诸于 “垃圾处理技术的更新”——垃圾发酵、堆肥以及庞大的垃圾回收系统,来消除垃圾焦虑。,
,在纪录片的结尾,艾恩斯探访美国巨大的垃圾回收站,镜头掠过整齐而富有秩序的垃圾传送带、垃圾处理起重机,画外音是回收场的工作人员陈述回收工作的完美与处理流程的完整,被打包的垃圾会运往中国,形成完整的回收与生产体系——“中国人会将这些回收的塑料制品做成新的产品,然后我们从他们手中购买商品”。,
,,纪录片《塑料海洋》海报,
,可持续性的垃圾处理与回收似乎提供了“令人安慰”的方案,垃圾的焦虑与灾难性事实终止于欧美国家看似完善的处理体系,似乎人类可以依赖“生产-消费-回收”的循环来驱逐“垃圾”的魅影。,
,但这一论述,是对事实的遮蔽。,
,一方面,可以被重新回收利用的垃圾事实上占据相当低的比例。发表于Sicence Advances 的论文The Chinese import ban and its impact on global plastic waste trade 指出,目前全球只有9%的塑料垃圾被回收利用,绝大多数(80%)塑料垃圾被填埋或最终污染环境,每年大约有400万至1200万吨塑料垃圾进入海洋。,
,再者,欧美回收的垃圾绝大部分以全球垃圾贸易链流入第三世界,将垃圾造粒重塑为原材料的过程也会产生大量的毒气、废物,回收依赖全球南方廉价的劳动力,廉价的环境成本和生命成本。佐治亚大学学者研究过去28年(1988-2016)世界塑料垃圾的进出口数量和交易额,指出高收入国家一直是塑料垃圾的主要出口国,亚非地区成为进口塑料的主导地区,拥有更完善垃圾处理基础设施和更高废品处理标准的富裕国家正在把塑料垃圾运往发展中国家。,
,因此,依赖回收体系实现清洁、无垃圾、可持续的欧美世界,是建立在垃圾被转移到第三世界的事实上。垃圾研究学者田松的说法更为准确,“垃圾不可能被处理,只能被转移”,“从看得见的地方,转移到看不见的地方;从话语权强的地方,转移到话语权弱的地方”。,
,也已有很多学者洞察到“回收实现可持续发展”具有深刻的意识形态性,是资本主义生产所构筑的谎言。,
,尼克·舒金(Nicole Shukin)在论着《动物资本:生物政治时代下的制化生命》(Animal Capitals: Rendering life in?biopolitical times)回溯西蒙斯(Simmonds)所开辟的“垃圾循环回收论”。西蒙斯将垃圾定义为“被错置的资源”,认为要为工业生产的垃圾找到重新利用的价值,现代工业经济必须模拟生态系统的物质循环,将垃圾重新纳入资本生产体系内部。,
,尼克·舒金认为通过挪用生态体系“循环”、“物质转化”的概念,西蒙斯“自然化”了工业生产体系,而遮蔽了资本生产通过垃圾回收降低原料成本、压榨更多剩余价值的事实,隐藏了工业必然生产废弃物的事实,塑造“生产-回收-生产”这一封闭性循环神话,进而,合理化无穷无尽的生产与消费。,
,学者Joshua Schuster 在分析加拿大摄影师爱德华·伯汀斯基(Edward Burtynsky)关于中国的垃圾回收景观的摄影作品时批判回收符号的虚假性,回收标志由三个回环的箭头构成一个封闭的圆圈,强调流动性与循环性,呈现不经过任何中介即可实现的重塑、转化,似乎任何垃圾物质最终都能走向无穷的循环,而取消了回收劳动者的在场,取消了回收过程承受污染暴力的人与非人的生命。,
,回收构筑了一个可以将废物完美处理为生产原料的神话,流畅的物质循环合理化了永不停歇的资本生产,遮蔽了工业生产方式中必然存在的废弃物环节,以及资本榨取过程中所制造的废物,与被废弃化的空间和生命。,
,当今消费社会文化逻辑的巨大讽刺在于,一方面垃圾回收、垃圾分类与垃圾再利用愈来愈成为公共领域中被认可、甚至大肆宣扬的环保政策,另一方面,我们比以往更心安理得地制造垃圾,“用完即弃”的生活方式在回收、环保字眼的包裹下获得了某种正当性,然而却很少有人去审视“时刻更新”的消费日常所建立的怪异的物欲,很少有人质疑“被物质包围”的生活本身。,
,这一悖谬很好地展现在电商回收快递包装的宣传上。快递垃圾占据垃圾产量的大部分,诸如阿里巴巴、京东、当当等大牌电商推出可回收包装纸箱,减少胶带的使用,媒体宣传“一绿到底”“节约胶带可绕赤道两周半”来彰显可回收的“效用”,为电商企业摇旗呐喊,但谁来追究那些无法被回收的垃圾?谁来戳破绿色消费的谎言?,
,固然垃圾回收有一定的现实意义,但是它不应该被神化,被视为解决垃圾问题的最终方式,从而遮蔽了真正的垃圾问题。垃圾的处理并非技术发展的问题,技术处理只会将人类卷入与垃圾更深的纠缠。,
,垃圾所提出的挑战在于:人类如何重新面对我们和物质、自然环境之间的关系。,
,垃圾转移与空间不平衡,
,纪录片《废物》关于垃圾焦虑的化解终止于将打包的回收垃圾运往中国,而至于这些垃圾到中国之后遭遇了什么,则成为被搁置的议题。环境主义式的主流纪录片将垃圾问题转化为一个技术问题或者管理问题,抹除了垃圾以不同方式被转移、被投掷的事实。,
,然而,另外一些具有反思意识与抵抗潜能的纪录影像,则完整地呈现了垃圾是如何被转移,例如大卫·费德尔(David Fedele)的纪录片《电子垃圾场》(E-wasteland),印度纪录片《城市边缘》(City’s Edge)《塑胶牛》(Plastic Cow)。特别是王久良的纪录片,其作品始终萦绕垃圾而展开,再现了城市化与全球化两个层面上的不同垃圾转移路径。,
,《垃圾围城》再现了城市内部的垃圾如何经由环卫系统与地下垃圾产业链被转移到城市郊区,并重塑了城市郊区;《塑料王国》呈现了全球垃圾贸易的转移路径:从美国奥克兰垃圾回收站,经由海运转移到中国东部沿海的农村。,
,在这些纪录片中,“转移”作为重要的事实被再现,也就是垃圾所在的空间并非天然、抽离地存在的,而是生成性的。在这些纪录片中,垃圾转移的工具——卡车、大轮船,被反复地再现,一方面呈现了废物的不可处理而只能被转移,另一方面,这些在新自由主义话语中实现空间快速横跨的“时空压缩”的工具,被指认为“自由”“快速”“扁平全球化”的象征,在这里却呈现了两个断裂性的空间:从消费的城市中心到投掷垃圾的城市边缘,从欧美后工业社会到承受垃圾的废弃化农村。,
,,《塑料王国》中的主人公依姐抱着刚出生的小妹妹,
,也就是垃圾处理,实质上是垃圾转移的问题。垃圾转移本身镌刻着深刻的地理不平衡,同时也在加剧空间的不平衡。学者田松在文章《洋垃圾:全球食物链与本土政治》中即指出垃圾转移体现的是资本运行的食物链,垃圾永远从上游转移到下游:,
,从全球范围内看,美国是上游,欧洲、日本是上游,中国、非洲、南美是下游;从中国范围内看,东部沿海、京上广是上游,西部是下游;从北京看,城市中心去是上游,周边区县城是下游——所以会有垃圾围城。,
,垃圾转移的方向即指认着不同层面意义上的地理不均衡,也在制造着复杂而多层的“中心”与“边缘”。干净、整洁的城市景观、所谓的后工业社会恰恰是建立在被用来投掷垃圾、被生产的废弃的边缘地带之上。垃圾作为物质在全球的区域流通即生动地再现了全球空间的断裂性。,
,王久良“塑料王国”纪录摄影中有一张照片拍摄躺在垃圾堆里的孩子,不识字的他正在辨识着德国品牌服装P&C包装垃圾上的文字:生产地是宁波,货物到达德国杜塞尔多夫。也就是说,中国生产的衣服被运往德国,而包装的塑料垃圾则从德国运回了中国。,
,物质流通显现了“生产-消费-回收”在全球秩序内部的不同分工,中国在全球资本主义经济链条内既成为世界工厂,同时也成为世界垃圾场。被废弃的消费品“尸体”被投掷到中国农村,成为垃圾回收场孩子们的玩具、学习的书册以及用来粘贴墙壁的墙纸,更重要的是,是他们获取经济收入的方式。王久良在采访中谈及他所感受到的垃圾全球化流通的“荒诞”性:,
,
,颇有意味的是,断裂空间的产生恰恰来源于世界图景的整体性。学者大卫·哈维将全球化理解为服从于资本逻辑而生产不平衡的时间和地理的过程,不平衡发展与等级性世界劳动分工体系密切联系,由此而形成了所谓的“中心地区”和“边缘地区”。,
,在西方中心主义或者是城市中心主义的进步历史观论述中,亚非拉国家、城市边缘(农村)往往被指认为肮脏、污秽的欠发达、落后、贫穷、不文明的地带,后者之所以困境重重在于文明发展的时间性远远晚于前者,而垃圾的空间转移路径则将先后时间的文明问题转化为共时空间问题,欠发达并非由于滞后,而是霸权施加的结构性暴力,是资本主义全球体系与城市秩序体系内置的权力不均衡所带来的。,
,全球垃圾贸易链末端的廉价生命,
,上个世纪90年代,倚赖进口国廉价劳力与低门槛环境政策,全球废品贸易链初步形成。发达国家高额的垃圾处理费用,使得出口垃圾比就地处理的利润更大。例如,英国填埋1吨固体垃圾需要上缴86英镑的填埋费。,
,垃圾进口国的回收企业、加工厂则利用在地廉价的劳动力和生产成本从废塑料中回收造粒赚取利润。由此形成了多方受益的经济贸易链。尽管有相关的法律法规禁止发达国家以最终处置为目的向发展中国家出口危险废料,但是各种垃圾依旧以走私、其他商品夹带、二手物品的名义非法出口到加纳、尼日利亚、印度、巴基斯坦和中国。,
,垃圾贸易链形成了回收经济生产链,同时也将发达国家的废物排放到回收地生态系统内部。一方面,废塑料被转化为生产材料,废弃物被重新纳入生产-消费体系内部,从而形成了“生产-消费-回收-生产-消费”的回环链条。,
,另外,回收过程中产生的巨量的废物,渗入在地居民的身体、在地生态系统,并直接进入全球生态循环。多伦多大学学者孟悦在论文《人类世版图上的塑料王国》以图示的方式很好地描绘了这两大循环。只不过,往往前者是“可见”的经济利润,而在地的生命,作为废物的直接承受者,则不被看见。,
,纪录片《塑料王国》非常清楚地再现了全球废物垃圾产业链与中国农村回收作坊的工人之间的关系。,
,在美国加利福尼亚州经过粗浅挑选的塑料垃圾会被打包运往中国农村。在地工人精细地识别、甄选、分类塑料类型,再将原本的碎料制品压碎、洗涤,重新造粒,成为塑料工业的原材料。,
,这一过程是以廉价的劳动力和回收工人的生命为基础和代价的:工人在几乎没有任何防护措施的条件下徒手分拣垃圾;杂乱的塑料垃圾中混杂着医疗废弃物和有毒或具有腐蚀性的化学物品;分拣场所内垃圾遍布味道奇臭无比,苍蝇漫天;身体被病菌侵袭,脸部患有严重的黄水疮。塑料加工设备非常简陋,一名20多年塑料厂工作经验的熟手,在一次通宵“造粒”中被机器冒出的甲醛熏晕以致左手被机器绞断。而这样的回收工作收入却非常低廉:割一斤塑料袋1毛钱,夫妻两人除掉生活费月收入2千元。,
,讽刺的是,纪录片所再现的被毒烟笼罩的身体,在主流的话语成为“缺席的身体”。纪录片开篇导演采访回收处理中心负责人为什么塑料要运往中国,“中国的市场实在是太好了,中国的买主能出别人两倍以上的价钱”,当被问及“垃圾去往中国”之后是如何的,负责人依据客户提供的报告认为“看起来可以”。在全球废物贸易内部,塑料垃圾如何处理仅仅只是一个“利润”数值的权衡,而塑料垃圾本身的毒物、对当地景观的侵蚀、对回收工人的生命的影响都成为不可见的景观。,
,很多学者从后殖民的视角出发批判全球垃圾贸易体系内部的不公正,认为这一定意义上延续了现代以来的霸权体系,讽刺的是,这一生态不平等恰恰是后发国家进入全球市场追求现代性的平等而造成的。,
,土耳其学者B.A.Donmez将发达国家的垃圾投掷与转移视为早期生态帝国主义(biological imperialism)的复制和延续,发达国家将亚非地区视为可废弃的空间,征用这里廉价的劳动力与当地的生命、生态资源。而生态批评学者罗博·尼克森则阐述了被嵌入全球体系的底层劳工的伤痛何以被新自由主义话语和发展逻辑所抹除、所压抑的。借用全球贸易所获得的自由流动的合理性,垃圾回收产生的毒物对在地景观的改变、对生命的伤害都被“合理化”了。,
,王久良在采访中提及,旧金山未经详细分拣的塑料卖给中国是一顿9美元,“9美元,连过叉车放在船上的费用都不够,但如果以9美元卖掉,就是’国际贸易’,如果一分钱不收,就是'倾泻'”。也就是,借助贸易的名义,垃圾获得了全球自由流动的资格和正当性。,
,另外,尼克森援引“发展难民(developmental refugees)”的概念指认在发展逻辑中被排斥出想象共同体的伤痛承受者。追求现代的、进步的发展中国家压抑了受难者的伤痛。纪录片“塑料王国”的命名就非常准确地展现了这一悖论:“塑料王国”取自媒体对中国大规模的废塑料回收加工区—余姚的称呼,所指认的是中国塑料产业的蓬勃发展与中国塑料业在全球市场举足轻重的位置。光鲜的经济价值掩盖了底层劳工和在地居民的身体伤痛。而纪录片以此命名,转向对在地居民生命经验性伤痛的体认。,
,可以说,承受垃圾暴力的身体是被双重“弃置”的——既是全球资本流动中被废弃的生命,同时也是现代国家发展话语内部不被承认的、可消耗的“剩余者”。,
,这样的分析,更多地将位居贸易链末端的垃圾回收从业者视为“单一的受害者”。但对于回收者来说,垃圾,既是威胁生命的污物,同时也为之提供了赖以生存的方式和经济生存的发展空间。,
,我们应该看到他们与垃圾回收业之间悖谬的关系,才能理解他们复杂的生命困境。学者孟悦在论文《人类世版图上的塑料王国》认为,纪录片《塑料王国》中所呈现的劳动者并不是纯粹的受害者角色,回收工人内化了公共话语对生命价值的否认,转而认同垃圾回收所带来的“财富、发展、经济”价值,自觉选择放弃生命健康。,
,因此,工人自身既参与者生态暴力,同时又沦为生态暴力最为直接的牺牲品。纪录片反复询问回收工人“为什么做这个(不健康的活)”,而劳动者给出的答案却是对生命、生活价值的重新认可,“为了孩子为了爸爸妈妈”、“为了生存”、“为了生活,为了孩子”。,
,看似悖谬的反差,实则呈现了劳工选择的被迫性:为了获取经济收入以维持和延续生命,不得不以生命的暂时搁置、身体伤痛的延宕为前提。为什么中国农村的农民需要以垃圾回收业为生呢?这一被迫的选择折射的是作为身份认同与社会价值认可的“农民”的死亡。,
,在一次映后谈中导演王久良谈及纪录片人物昆对农民身份的痛恨,“离开农村,进入城市”是他未来的图景想象。而为了生存,雇工鹏则不远万里从四川农村到山东做回收工人。齐格蒙特·鲍曼将那些由于现代化生活范式在全球的传播(或者是另一种新的秩序建构和经济进步)而被剥夺曾经有效的生存手段的人称之为废弃的生命。某种程度上,他们都属于“废弃的生命”。,
,《塑料王国》纪录片的结尾颇具意味:雇工鹏的儿子在垃圾堆里捡到一张由英国通讯公司Lebara所生产的手机卡,雇主昆将SIM卡插入手机里读出手机屏幕所显示的文字:“Welcome in China,欢迎来到中国”, 这句话被叠合在另一个镜头上:熊熊燃烧的垃圾堆散发的毒烟淹没了孩子的嬉戏声,纪录片的主人公伊姐在烟雾弥漫的垃圾堆里翻检垃圾。,
,“Welcome in China” 这句话所指认的是一个挺进世界市场的中国,同时也意味着一个承受世界垃圾的中国。,
,而这两重涵义都内置于位于全球垃圾贸易末端的中国农村的人的生命经验:他们承受着垃圾回收工业所带来的渗透于身体内部的伤痛,同时他们也分享着崛起的中国所指认的经济进取的生活想象——即抛弃故土、背弃农民的身份,背弃生命与生态本身的价值。,
,参考文献:,1.齐格蒙特·鲍曼(Zygmunt Bauman)着;谷蕾,胡欣译. 废弃的生命[M]. 南京:江苏人民出版社, 2006,2.Scanlan John. On garbage[M]. Reaktion Books, 2005,3.Gay Hawkins, The ethics of waste: How we relate to rubbish. Rowman & Littlefield, 2006,4.Nixon Rob. Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor[M]. Harvard University Press, 2011,5.Shukin Nicole. Animal capital: Rendering life in biopolitical times[M]. U of Minnesota Press, 2009,6.A L, Wang S, Jambeck J R. The Chinese import ban and its impact on global plastic waste trade[J]. Science advances, 2018, 4(6): eaat0131.,7.B.A.Donmez. Ecological Imperialism in the age of the posthuman: David Fedele’s E-wasteland[M]//Rayson K.Alex,S.Susan Deborah edi, Ecodocumentaries: Critical Essays. Springer, 2016,8.张嘉如.思考垃圾动物的几种方式:印度纪录片《塑胶牛》为例[J].文艺理论研究,2016,(第4期).,9.田松. 洋垃圾全球食物链与本土政治 [J]. 中国周刊, 2006 (1): 44-45.,10.孟悦. 生态危机与 “人类纪” 的文化解读——影像, 诗歌和生命不可承受之物[J]. 清华大学学报 (哲学社会科学版), 2016 (3): 1.,11.孟悦. 人类世版图上的塑料王国[M]//龚浩敏,鲁晓鹏着. 中国生态电影论集. 武汉:武汉大学出版社, 2017,
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ti, na me nei xie ju you fan si xing de ji lu ying xiang ze zhan shi la ji nei zhi de di li bu ping heng yu bao li xing. la ji zhuan yi de lu jing zhan shi zhe cheng shi hua yu quan qiu hua jin cheng zhong de zi yuan bo duo he bao li, yuan ben de fen gong bu jun heng gui ding le la ji zhuan yi de lu jing, tong shi la ji zhuan yi you chong xin sheng cheng le fei qi hua de kong jian.,, zui hou, la ji ben shen ju you fu shi xing du xing, wei xie zai di sheng tai yu sheng ming, la ji shi ru he jiang cheng shou la ji de ren yu fei ren sheng ming juan ru yi chang zai nan, er wo men ru he li jie wei ju quan qiu la ji mao yi ti xi di duan di lao gong de sheng ming kun jing? wei shen me ta men yuan yi cong shi dui zi shen sheng ming you hai de gong zuo ne?,, fei qi xian dai xing yu bu ke jian de la ji,," diu qi" de ri chang shi jian fu yu le la ji zhe yang de xiang xiang: jue dui de si wang fei wu yu wu yong. dan shi la ji bing fei jue dui de wu yi yi, er yin han zhe wen hua zhi xu de luo ji. yan jiu wu wu zhong yao de wen hua xue zhe ma li dao ge la si Mary Douglas zai lun zhu jie jing yu wei xian zhong chan shu le wu wu de she hui jian gou xing bing mei you ben zhi yi yi shang de wu gou, wu wu zhi suo yi shi wu wu, zai yu ta wei zhi bu dang yi ji dui zhi xu de mao fan, ru" xie zi ben shen bu shi ang zang de, ran er ba ta fang dao can zhuo shang jiu shi ang zang de". jin er yan zhi, la ji bing fei gu li de wu zhi, er yi wei zhe yi xi lie de zhi xu yi ji she hui fen lei de gui fan.,, la ji, ji shi she hui zhi xu de sheng yu wu, shi bei te ding de she hui xi tong hua ding wei wu yong ke fei qi de wu zhi. you ci, la ji yan jiu de guan jian zai yu chan shu" la ji ru he sheng chan" yi ji dui gui fan xing guan nian de pi pan yu fan si. ye jiu shi shuo, li jie la ji de guan jian zhi chu bing bu zai yu la ji ben shen, er zai yu sheng cheng la ji de ju ti de li shi wen hua yu jing.,,, jie jing yu wei xian, ying ma li dao ge la si huang jian bo min zu chu ban she 20089,, xian dai la ji de sheng cheng yu" yong wan ji qi" de xi guan yang cheng mi qie xiang guan, diu qi yu wu zhi di shi yong jia zhi wu guan, er cheng wei wen hua xi guan, shang cun shi yong jia zhi de wu zhi ye hui bei fei qi. la ji yan jiu xue zhe gai yi huo jin Gay Hawkins zai lun zhu The ethics of Waste: How we relate to rubbish zhong da zhi shu li diu qi wen hua yang cheng de she hui li shi.,, shou xian, 19 shi ji 60 nian dai yi ci xing zhi zhi yong pin de fa ming yu tui guang xing cheng le xian dai jie jing wei sheng de guan nian. yi xue shang" kan bu jian de xi jun" de lun shu jian gou quan xin de wei sheng ti xi, shi de yi ci xing zhi zhi pin huo de lun li ke xue de zheng ming. 20 shi ji 20 nian dai, bian li xiao lv de jing ji xue xiu ci jue qi cu jin le geng duo yi ci xing chan pin de sheng chan, li ru da bao shi pin su liao shou tao la ji dai deng chan pin bei tui guang, shi tu da zao ji ju xiao lv kuai su fang bian de jia ting sheng huo. ji shu qiang hua le xian dai ren dui xiao lv de chong shang shi jian de ya suo.,, er zui zhong yao de shi, xian dai gong ye fa zhan yu da zhong xiao fei she hui de dao lai jia su le wu de si wang su du. xiao fei she hui che di gai bian le ren yu wu zhi jian de guan xi, shang pin xu yao bei geng wei kuai su di pao qi, cai neng you geng duo de wu de sheng chan. bao de li ya zai xiao fei she hui kai pian ji zhi chu, wo men sheng huo yu" wu de shi dai", xian dai jian zheng le wu de jing ren de zeng zhang he yong xian, tong shi ye jia su le wu de si wang. xiao fei luo ji jian li qi ren yu shang pin zhi jian duan zan er shun xi yong yuan wu fa man zu de yu wang guan xi, wu de fei qi si wang cheng wei bi ran.,,, xiao fei she hui, fa rang bao de li ya liu cheng fu nan jing da xue chu ban she 201410,, guan yu xian dai zhi xu yu fei wu zhi jian de guan lian, xue zhe bao man de fen xi geng wei che di. zai lun zhu fei qi de sheng ming: xian dai xing ji qi qi er, bao man ren wei fei qi nei zai yu xian dai wen ming sheng chan zhi xu nei bu.,, ru guo shuo, qian xian dai de nong ye geng zhong ti xian de shi lian xu de si hou zhong sheng sheng sheng bu xi de xun huan, na me xian dai de cai kuang ze shi po lie he jian duan xing de xiang zheng, xin shi wu de sheng chan lai zi yu dui jiu shi wu de fei qi he po huai, suo you de xin shi wu xu yao fu lan lao si yi wei geng xin de shi wu rang lu," cai kuang de mei yi bu dou mei you hui tou, ta shi dan fang xiang de yun dong, bu neng qu xiao, bu neng wan hui. cai kuang de li shi shi bei fei qi lv jin de kuang mai de fen mu". nei zhi yu xian dai xing de liu dong xing wu shi wu ke bu zai zhi zao zhe fei qi wu, zhi zao zhe" zou xiang la ji dui" de wu pin.,, bao man ren wei, zhe zhong qiang zhi xing de fei qi liu dong juan ke zai wo men de shen mei ren zhi zhu yi li shi shang mei xue yi ji ri chang jiao wang he bu duan liu bian de sheng huo zhi zhong:" wan shi wan wu zi dan sheng zhi ri kai shi, jiu tie shang le si wang ji jiang lai lin de biao qian mei yi yang shi wu zai li kai sheng chan xian de shi hou, dou bei tie shang le yi zhang' zai ci ri qi qian shi yong' de biao qian".,,, fei qi de sheng ming: xian dai xing ji qi qi er, ying qi ge meng te bao man gu lei hu xin jiang su ren min chu ban she 200611,, diao gui de shi, xian dai shi jie cheng nuo le yi ge" mei you la ji" de xian shi, la ji xiao shi le.,, qi ze ke zai ji lu pian shou shen shi de sheng huo Examined Life: Philosophy is in the Streets de kai pian zhan zai la ji dui pang bian jiang shu ri chang sheng huo dui la ji de gan zhi de que xi:" zai wo men dui ri chang xian shi de gan zhi zhong, zhei xie dong xi la ji cong wo men de shi jie zhong xiao shi le, dang ni qu ce suo, shi xiao shi le, ni chong zou le ta, dang ran, li zhi shang ni zhi dao shi zai na li, ran er zai ni zui ji chu jing yan de nei he zhi zhong, shi cong ni de shi jie zhong xiao shi".,, yi lai yu xia shui dao la ji xiang la ji che la ji zhan deng ceng ceng xiang kou de xian dai cheng shi wei sheng chu li xi tong, wo men jiang la ji qing li chu sheng huo. zhi bu guo, kan si guang xian zheng jie de xian shi yi zhi long zhao zai la ji de mei ying zhi xia.,, yue han shi kan lan zai lun zhu guan yu la ji On Garbage zhong ren wei la ji shi ren lei gong ye he zi ben zhu yi wen ming zhong bei ya yi de" wu zhi qian yi shi", cheng shi wen ming zhi xu shi tong guo la ji de pai chi jian li qi lai de, la ji zai cheng shi zhong shi gui mei de, you ling shi de cun zai ghostly presence, nei xie san luo de bei qing li de la ji hui cong yan mai de fen mu zhong pa chu lai, hui huan hua cheng ge zhong xing shi mi san yu kong qi shui tu rang zhi zhong, hui dao xian shi, hui dao shen ti nei bu.,,, ji lu pian shou shen shi de sheng huo hai bao,, wo men sui shou diu chu qu de la ji dai ya gao ke ya shua yi huo shi qing jie ji, ke neng hui bei ya sui chu li, bei qing dao dao hai yang, bei hai yang sheng wu she ru qi ti nei, zui zhong tong guo shi wu lian chong xin hui dao wo men de shen ti nei yi huo shi bei fen shao tian mai, shen tou dao di xia shui tu di kong qi zhong, mi san yu wo men sheng huo de huan jing, bing chong su wo men de shen ti.,, la ji de fen lei he hui shou, zhi zao le mei you la ji de huan jue,, jin nian lai, la ji yue lai yue zuo wei zhong yao de huan jing wen ti bei na ru sheng tai ji lu pian de zai xian yu biao shu, ran er zhu liu de sheng tai ji lu pian wang wang jiang la ji miao shu wei yi chang sheng tai zai nan, yi ge ji dai jie jue de huan jing yi ti. ling yi fang mian, ji lu pian zui zhong you hui xun qiu" ke chi xu xing" de fang shi xiao chu la ji bi ru la ji hui shou la ji fen lei la ji dui fei deng, cong er xiao chu" la ji" suo dai lai de jiao lv yu bu an.,, ren men ji yu ji shu de jin bu hui shou ti xi de jian quan lai hua jie zhe ge ling ren kong ju yu bu an de xian dai zai nan. li ru, ji lu pian su liao hai yang A Plastic Ocean yi zhuang zhong de hua wai yin zhan shi le mei guo hai jun jian dui ru he li yong gao ke ji de qing jie gong yi shi xian la ji de wu hai hua. ji lu pian fei wu Trashed xu shu zhe jie rui mi ai en si zui zhong su zhu yu " la ji chu li ji shu de geng xin" la ji fa jiao dui fei yi ji pang da de la ji hui shou xi tong, lai xiao chu la ji jiao lv.,, zai ji lu pian de jie wei, ai en si tan fang mei guo ju da de la ji hui shou zhan, jing tou lue guo zheng qi er fu you zhi xu de la ji chuan song dai la ji chu li qi zhong ji, hua wai yin shi hui shou chang de gong zuo ren yuan chen shu hui shou gong zuo de wan mei yu chu li liu cheng de wan zheng, bei da bao de la ji hui yun wang zhong guo, xing cheng wan zheng de hui shou yu sheng chan ti xi" zhong guo ren hui jiang zhei xie hui shou de su liao zhi pin zuo cheng xin de chan pin, ran hou wo men cong ta men shou zhong gou mai shang pin".,,, ji lu pian su liao hai yang hai bao,, ke chi xu xing de la ji chu li yu hui shou si hu ti gong le" ling ren an wei" de fang an, la ji de jiao lv yu zai nan xing shi shi zhong zhi yu ou mei guo jia kan si wan shan de chu li ti xi, si hu ren lei ke yi yi lai" sheng chan xiao fei hui shou" de xun huan lai qu zhu" la ji" de mei ying.,, dan zhe yi lun shu, shi dui shi shi de zhe bi.,, yi fang mian, ke yi bei chong xin hui shou li yong de la ji shi shi shang zhan ju xiang dang di de bi li. fa biao yu Sicence Advances de lun wen The Chinese import ban and its impact on global plastic waste trade zhi chu, mu qian quan qiu zhi you 9 de su liao la ji bei hui shou li yong, jue da duo shu 80 su liao la ji bei tian mai huo zui zhong wu ran huan jing, mei nian da yue you 400 wan zhi 1200 wan dun su liao la ji jin ru hai yang.,, zai zhe, ou mei hui shou de la ji jue da bu fen yi quan qiu la ji mao yi lian liu ru di san shi jie, jiang la ji zao li chong su wei yuan cai liao de guo cheng ye hui chan sheng da liang de du qi fei wu, hui shou yi lai quan qiu nan fang lian jia de lao dong li, lian jia de huan jing cheng ben he sheng ming cheng ben. zuo zhi ya da xue xue zhe yan jiu guo qu 28 nian 19882016 shi jie su liao la ji de jin chu kou shu liang he jiao yi e, zhi chu gao shou ru guo jia yi zhi shi su liao la ji de zhu yao chu kou guo, ya fei di qu cheng wei jin kou su liao de zhu dao di qu, yong you geng wan shan la ji chu li ji chu she shi he geng gao fei pin chu li biao zhun di fu yu guo jia zheng zai ba su liao la ji yun wang fa zhan zhong guo jia.,, yin ci, yi lai hui shou ti xi shi xian qing jie wu la ji ke chi xu de ou mei shi jie, shi jian li zai la ji bei zhuan yi dao di san shi jie de shi shi shang. la ji yan jiu xue zhe tian song de shuo fa geng wei zhun que," la ji bu ke neng bei chu li, zhi neng bei zhuan yi"," cong kan de jian de di fang, zhuan yi dao kan bu jian de di fang cong hua yu quan qiang de di fang, zhuan yi dao hua yu quan ruo de di fang".,, ye yi you hen duo xue zhe dong cha dao" hui shou shi xian ke chi xu fa zhan" ju you shen ke de yi shi xing tai xing, shi zi ben zhu yi sheng chan suo gou zhu de huang yan.,, ni ke shu jin Nicole Shukin zai lun zhu dong wu zi ben: sheng wu zheng zhi shi dai xia de zhi hua sheng ming Animal Capitals: Rendering life inbiopolitical times hui su xi meng si Simmonds suo kai pi de" la ji xun huan hui shou lun". xi meng si jiang la ji ding yi wei" bei cuo zhi de zi yuan", ren wei yao wei gong ye sheng chan de la ji zhao dao chong xin li yong de jia zhi, xian dai gong ye jing ji bi xu mo ni sheng tai xi tong de wu zhi xun huan, jiang la ji chong xin na ru zi ben sheng chan ti xi nei bu.,, ni ke shu jin ren wei tong guo nuo yong sheng tai ti xi" xun huan"" wu zhi zhuan hua" de gai nian, xi meng si" zi ran hua" le gong ye sheng chan ti xi, er zhe bi le zi ben sheng chan tong guo la ji hui shou xiang di yuan liao cheng ben ya zha geng duo sheng yu jia zhi de shi shi, yin cang le gong ye bi ran sheng chan fei qi wu de shi shi, su zao" sheng chan hui shou sheng chan" zhe yi feng bi xing xun huan shen hua, jin er, he li hua wu qiong wu jin de sheng chan yu xiao fei.,, xue zhe Joshua Schuster zai fen xi jia na da she ying shi ai de hua bo ting si ji Edward Burtynsky guan yu zhong guo de la ji hui shou jing guan de she ying zuo pin shi pi pan hui shou fu hao de xu jia xing, hui shou biao zhi you san ge hui huan de jian tou gou cheng yi ge feng bi de yuan quan, qiang diao liu dong xing yu xun huan xing, cheng xian bu jing guo ren he zhong jie ji ke shi xian de chong su zhuan hua, si hu ren he la ji wu zhi zui zhong dou neng zou xiang wu qiong de xun huan, er qu xiao le hui shou lao dong zhe de zai chang, qu xiao le hui shou guo cheng cheng shou wu ran bao li de ren yu fei ren de sheng ming.,, hui shou gou zhu le yi ge ke yi jiang fei wu wan mei chu li wei sheng chan yuan liao de shen hua, liu chang de wu zhi xun huan he li hua le yong bu ting xie de zi ben sheng chan, zhe bi le gong ye sheng chan fang shi zhong bi ran cun zai de fei qi wu huan jie, yi ji zi ben zha qu guo cheng zhong suo zhi zao de fei wu, yu bei fei qi hua de kong jian he sheng ming.,, dang jin xiao fei she hui wen hua luo ji de ju da feng ci zai yu, yi fang mian la ji hui shou la ji fen lei yu la ji zai li yong yu lai yu cheng wei gong gong ling yu zhong bei ren ke shen zhi da si xuan yang de huan bao zheng ce, ling yi fang mian, wo men bi yi wang geng xin an li de di zhi zao la ji," yong wan ji qi" de sheng huo fang shi zai hui shou huan bao zi yan de bao guo xia huo de le mou zhong zheng dang xing, ran er que hen shao you ren qu shen shi" shi ke geng xin" de xiao fei ri chang suo jian li de guai yi de wu yu, hen shao you ren zhi yi" bei wu zhi bao wei" de sheng huo ben shen.,, zhe yi bei miu hen hao di zhan xian zai dian shang hui shou kuai di bao zhuang de xuan chuan shang. kuai di la ji zhan ju la ji chan liang de da bu fen, zhu ru a li ba ba jing dong dang dang deng da pai dian shang tui chu ke hui shou bao zhuang zhi xiang, jian shao jiao dai de shi yong, mei ti xuan chuan" yi lv dao di"" jie yue jiao dai ke rao chi dao liang zhou ban" lai zhang xian ke hui shou de" xiao yong", wei dian shang qi ye yao qi na han, dan shui lai zhui jiu nei xie wu fa bei hui shou de la ji? shui lai chuo po lv se xiao fei de huang yan?,, gu ran la ji hui shou you yi ding de xian shi yi yi, dan shi ta bu ying gai bei shen hua, bei shi wei jie jue la ji wen ti de zui zhong fang shi, cong er zhe bi le zhen zheng de la ji wen ti. la ji de chu li bing fei ji shu fa zhan de wen ti, ji shu chu li zhi hui jiang ren lei juan ru yu la ji geng shen de jiu chan.,, la ji suo ti chu de tiao zhan zai yu: ren lei ru he chong xin mian dui wo men he wu zhi zi ran huan jing zhi jian de guan xi.,, la ji zhuan yi yu kong jian bu ping heng,, ji lu pian fei wu guan yu la ji jiao lv de hua jie zhong zhi yu jiang da bao de hui shou la ji yun wang zhong guo, er zhi yu zhei xie la ji dao zhong guo zhi hou zao yu le shen me, ze cheng wei bei ge zhi de yi ti. huan jing zhu yi shi de zhu liu ji lu pian jiang la ji wen ti zhuan hua wei yi ge ji shu wen ti huo zhe guan li wen ti, mo chu le la ji yi bu tong fang shi bei zhuan yi bei tou zhi de shi shi.,, ran er, ling wai yi xie ju you fan si yi shi yu di kang qian neng de ji lu ying xiang, ze wan zheng di cheng xian le la ji shi ru he bei zhuan yi, li ru da wei fei de er David Fedele de ji lu pian dian zi la ji chang Ewasteland, yin du ji lu pian cheng shi bian yuan City' s Edge su jiao niu Plastic Cow. te bie shi wang jiu liang de ji lu pian, qi zuo pin shi zhong ying rao la ji er zhan kai, zai xian le cheng shi hua yu quan qiu hua liang ge ceng mian shang de bu tong la ji zhuan yi lu jing.,, la ji wei cheng zai xian le cheng shi nei bu de la ji ru he jing you huan wei xi tong yu di xia la ji chan ye lian bei zhuan yi dao cheng shi jiao qu, bing chong su le cheng shi jiao qu su liao wang guo cheng xian le quan qiu la ji mao yi de zhuan yi lu jing: cong mei guo ao ke lan la ji hui shou zhan, jing you hai yun zhuan yi dao zhong guo dong bu yan hai de nong cun.,, zai zhei xie ji lu pian zhong," zhuan yi" zuo wei zhong yao de shi shi bei zai xian, ye jiu shi la ji suo zai de kong jian bing fei tian ran chou li di cun zai de, er shi sheng cheng xing de. zai zhei xie ji lu pian zhong, la ji zhuan yi de gong ju ka che da lun chuan, bei fan fu di zai xian, yi fang mian cheng xian le fei wu de bu ke chu li er zhi neng bei zhuan yi, ling yi fang mian, zhei xie zai xin zi you zhu yi hua yu zhong shi xian kong jian kuai su heng kua de" shi kong ya suo" de gong ju, bei zhi ren wei" zi you"" kuai su"" bian ping quan qiu hua" de xiang zheng, zai zhe li que cheng xian le liang ge duan lie xing de kong jian: cong xiao fei de cheng shi zhong xin dao tou zhi la ji de cheng shi bian yuan, cong ou mei hou gong ye she hui dao cheng shou la ji de fei qi hua nong cun.,,, su liao wang guo zhong de zhu ren gong yi jie bao zhe gang chu sheng de xiao mei mei,, ye jiu shi la ji chu li, shi zhi shang shi la ji zhuan yi de wen ti. la ji zhuan yi ben shen juan ke zhe shen ke de di li bu ping heng, tong shi ye zai jia ju kong jian de bu ping heng. xue zhe tian song zai wen zhang yang la ji: quan qiu shi wu lian yu ben tu zheng zhi zhong ji zhi chu la ji zhuan yi ti xian de shi zi ben yun xing de shi wu lian, la ji yong yuan cong shang you zhuan yi dao xia you:,, cong quan qiu fan wei nei kan, mei guo shi shang you, ou zhou ri ben shi shang you, zhong guo fei zhou nan mei shi xia you cong zhong guo fan wei nei kan, dong bu yan hai jing shang guang shi shang you, xi bu shi xia you cong bei jing kan, cheng shi zhong xin qu shi shang you, zhou bian qu xian cheng shi xia you suo yi hui you la ji wei cheng.,, la ji zhuan yi de fang xiang ji zhi ren zhe bu tong ceng mian yi yi shang de di li bu jun heng, ye zai zhi zao zhe fu za er duo ceng de" zhong xin" yu" bian yuan". gan jing zheng jie de cheng shi jing guan suo wei de hou gong ye she hui qia qia shi jian li zai bei yong lai tou zhi la ji bei sheng chan de fei qi de bian yuan di dai zhi shang. la ji zuo wei wu zhi zai quan qiu de qu yu liu tong ji sheng dong di zai xian le quan qiu kong jian de duan lie xing.,, wang jiu liang" su liao wang guo" ji lu she ying zhong you yi zhang zhao pian pai she tang zai la ji dui li de hai zi, bu shi zi de ta zheng zai bian shi zhe de guo pin pai fu zhuang P amp C bao zhuang la ji shang de wen zi: sheng chan di shi ning bo, huo wu dao da de guo du se er duo fu. ye jiu shi shuo, zhong guo sheng chan de yi fu bei yun wang de guo, er bao zhuang de su liao la ji ze cong de guo yun hui le zhong guo.,, wu zhi liu tong xian xian le" sheng chan xiao fei hui shou" zai quan qiu zhi xu nei bu de bu tong fen gong, zhong guo zai quan qiu zi ben zhu yi jing ji lian tiao nei ji cheng wei shi jie gong chang, tong shi ye cheng wei shi jie la ji chang. bei fei qi de xiao fei pin" shi ti" bei tou zhi dao zhong guo nong cun, cheng wei la ji hui shou chang hai zi men de wan ju xue xi de shu ce yi ji yong lai zhan tie qiang bi de qiang zhi, geng zhong yao de shi, shi ta men huo qu jing ji shou ru de fang shi. wang jiu liang zai cai fang zhong tan ji ta suo gan shou dao de la ji quan qiu hua liu tong de" huang dan" xing:,,, po you yi wei de shi, duan lie kong jian de chan sheng qia qia lai yuan yu shi jie tu jing de zheng ti xing. xue zhe da wei ha wei jiang quan qiu hua li jie wei fu cong yu zi ben luo ji er sheng chan bu ping heng de shi jian he di li de guo cheng, bu ping heng fa zhan yu deng ji xing shi jie lao dong fen gong ti xi mi qie lian xi, you ci er xing cheng le suo wei de" zhong xin di qu" he" bian yuan di qu".,, zai xi fang zhong xin zhu yi huo zhe shi cheng shi zhong xin zhu yi de jin bu li shi guan lun shu zhong, ya fei la guo jia cheng shi bian yuan nong cun wang wang bei zhi ren wei ang zang wu hui de qian fa da luo hou pin qiong bu wen ming de di dai, hou zhe zhi suo yi kun jing chong chong zai yu wen ming fa zhan de shi jian xing yuan yuan wan yu qian zhe, er la ji de kong jian zhuan yi lu jing ze jiang xian hou shi jian de wen ming wen ti zhuan hua wei gong shi kong jian wen ti, qian fa da bing fei you yu zhi hou, er shi ba quan shi jia de jie gou xing bao li, shi zi ben zhu yi quan qiu ti xi yu cheng shi zhi xu ti xi nei zhi de quan li bu jun heng suo dai lai de.,, quan qiu la ji mao yi lian mo duan di lian jia sheng ming,, shang ge shi ji 90 nian dai, yi lai jin kou guo lian jia lao li yu di men kan huan jing zheng ce, quan qiu fei pin mao yi lian chu bu xing cheng. fa da guo jia gao e de la ji chu li fei yong, shi de chu kou la ji bi jiu di chu li de li run geng da. li ru, ying guo tian mai 1 dun gu ti la ji xu yao shang jiao 86 ying bang de tian mai fei.,, la ji jin kou guo de hui shou qi ye jia gong chang ze li yong zai di lian jia de lao dong li he sheng chan cheng ben cong fei su liao zhong hui shou zao li zhuan qu li run. you ci xing cheng le duo fang shou yi de jing ji mao yi lian. jin guan you xiang guan de fa lv fa gui jin zhi fa da guo jia yi zui zhong chu zhi wei mu di xiang fa zhan zhong guo jia chu kou wei xian fei liao, dan shi ge zhong la ji yi jiu yi zou si qi ta shang pin jia dai er shou wu pin de ming yi fei fa chu kou dao jia na ni ri li ya yin du ba ji si tan he zhong guo.,, la ji mao yi lian xing cheng le hui shou jing ji sheng chan lian, tong shi ye jiang fa da guo jia de fei wu pai fang dao hui shou di sheng tai xi tong nei bu. yi fang mian, fei su liao bei zhuan hua wei sheng chan cai liao, fei qi wu bei chong xin na ru sheng chan xiao fei ti xi nei bu, cong er xing cheng le" sheng chan xiao fei hui shou sheng chan xiao fei" de hui huan lian tiao.,, ling wai, hui shou guo cheng zhong chan sheng de ju liang de fei wu, shen ru zai di ju min de shen ti zai di sheng tai xi tong, bing zhi jie jin ru quan qiu sheng tai xun huan. duo lun duo da xue xue zhe meng yue zai lun wen ren lei shi ban tu shang de su liao wang guo yi tu shi de fang shi hen hao di miao hui le zhe liang da xun huan. zhi bu guo, wang wang qian zhe shi" ke jian" de jing ji li run, er zai di de sheng ming, zuo wei fei wu de zhi jie cheng shou zhe, ze bu bei kan jian.,, ji lu pian su liao wang guo fei chang qing chu di zai xian le quan qiu fei wu la ji chan ye lian yu zhong guo nong cun hui shou zuo fang de gong ren zhi jian de guan xi.,, zai mei guo jia li fu ni ya zhou jing guo cu qian tiao xuan de su liao la ji hui bei da bao yun wang zhong guo nong cun. zai di gong ren jing xi di shi bie zhen xuan fen lei su liao lei xing, zai jiang yuan ben de sui liao zhi pin ya sui xi di, chong xin zao li, cheng wei su liao gong ye de yuan cai liao.,, zhe yi guo cheng shi yi lian jia de lao dong li he hui shou gong ren de sheng ming wei ji chu he dai jia de: gong ren zai ji hu mei you ren he fang hu cuo shi de tiao jian xia tu shou fen jian la ji za luan de su liao la ji zhong hun za zhe yi liao fei qi wu he you du huo ju you fu shi xing de hua xue wu pin fen jian chang suo nei la ji bian bu wei dao qi chou wu bi, cang ying man tian shen ti bei bing jun qin xi, lian bu huan you yan zhong de huang shui chuang. su liao jia gong she bei fei chang jian lou, yi ming 20 duo nian su liao chang gong zuo jing yan de shu shou, zai yi ci tong xiao" zao li" zhong bei ji qi mao chu de jia quan xun yun yi zhi zuo shou bei ji qi jiao duan. er zhe yang de hui shou gong zuo shou ru que fei chang di lian: ge yi jin su liao dai 1 mao qian, fu qi liang ren chu diao sheng huo fei yue shou ru 2 qian yuan.,, feng ci de shi, ji lu pian suo zai xian de bei du yan long zhao de shen ti, zai zhu liu de hua yu cheng wei" que xi de shen ti". ji lu pian kai pian dao yan cai fang hui shou chu li zhong xin fu ze ren wei shen me su liao yao yun wang zhong guo," zhong guo de shi chang shi zai shi tai hao le, zhong guo de mai zhu neng chu bie ren liang bei yi shang de jia qian", dang bei wen ji" la ji qu wang zhong guo" zhi hou shi ru he de, fu ze ren yi ju ke hu ti gong de bao gao ren wei" kan qi lai ke yi". zai quan qiu fei wu mao yi nei bu, su liao la ji ru he chu li jin jin zhi shi yi ge" li run" shu zhi de quan heng, er su liao la ji ben shen de du wu dui dang di jing guan de qin shi dui hui shou gong ren de sheng ming de ying xiang dou cheng wei bu ke jian de jing guan.,, hen duo xue zhe cong hou zhi min de shi jiao chu fa pi pan quan qiu la ji mao yi ti xi nei bu de bu gong zheng, ren wei zhe yi ding yi yi shang yan xu le xian dai yi lai de ba quan ti xi, feng ci de shi, zhe yi sheng tai bu ping deng qia qia shi hou fa guo jia jin ru quan qiu shi chang zhui qiu xian dai xing de ping deng er zao cheng de.,, tu er qi xue zhe B. A. Donmez jiang fa da guo jia de la ji tou zhi yu zhuan yi shi wei zao qi sheng tai di guo zhu yi biological imperialism de fu zhi he yan xu, fa da guo jia jiang ya fei di qu shi wei ke fei qi de kong jian, zheng yong zhe li lian jia de lao dong li yu dang di de sheng ming sheng tai zi yuan. er sheng tai pi ping xue zhe luo bo ni ke sen ze chan shu le bei qian ru quan qiu ti xi de di ceng lao gong de shang tong he yi bei xin zi you zhu yi hua yu he fa zhan luo ji suo mo chu suo ya yi de. jie yong quan qiu mao yi suo huo de de zi you liu dong de he li xing, la ji hui shou chan sheng de du wu dui zai di jing guan de gai bian dui sheng ming de shang hai dou bei" he li hua" le.,, wang jiu liang zai cai fang zhong ti ji, jiu jin shan wei jing xiang xi fen jian de su liao mai gei zhong guo shi yi dun 9 mei yuan," 9 mei yuan, lian guo cha che fang zai chuan shang de fei yong dou bu gou, dan ru guo yi 9 mei yuan mai diao, jiu shi' guo ji mao yi', ru guo yi fen qian bu shou, jiu shi 39 qing xie 39". ye jiu shi, jie zhu mao yi de ming yi, la ji huo de le quan qiu zi you liu dong de zi ge he zheng dang xing.,, ling wai, ni ke sen yuan yin" fa zhan nan min developmental refugees" de gai nian zhi ren zai fa zhan luo ji zhong bei pai chi chu xiang xiang gong tong ti de shang tong cheng shou zhe. zhui qiu xian dai de jin bu de fa zhan zhong guo jia ya yi le shou nan zhe de shang tong. ji lu pian" su liao wang guo" de ming ming jiu fei chang zhun que di zhan xian le zhe yi bei lun:" su liao wang guo" qu zi mei ti dui zhong guo da gui mo de fei su liao hui shou jia gong qu yu yao de cheng hu, suo zhi ren de shi zhong guo su liao chan ye de peng bo fa zhan yu zhong guo su liao ye zai quan qiu shi chang ju zu qing zhong de wei zhi. guang xian de jing ji jia zhi yan gai le di ceng lao gong he zai di ju min de shen ti shang tong. er ji lu pian yi ci ming ming, zhuan xiang dui zai di ju min sheng ming jing yan xing shang tong de ti ren.,, ke yi shuo, cheng shou la ji bao li de shen ti shi bei shuang chong" qi zhi" de ji shi quan qiu zi ben liu dong zhong bei fei qi de sheng ming, tong shi ye shi xian dai guo jia fa zhan hua yu nei bu bu bei cheng ren de ke xiao hao de" sheng yu zhe".,, zhe yang de fen xi, geng duo di jiang wei ju mao yi lian mo duan di la ji hui shou cong ye zhe shi wei" dan yi de shou hai zhe". dan dui yu hui shou zhe lai shuo, la ji, ji shi wei xie sheng ming de wu wu, tong shi ye wei zhi ti gong le lai yi sheng cun de fang shi he jing ji sheng cun de fa zhan kong jian.,, wo men ying gai kan dao ta men yu la ji hui shou ye zhi jian bei miu de guan xi, cai neng li jie ta men fu za de sheng ming kun jing. xue zhe meng yue zai lun wen ren lei shi ban tu shang de su liao wang guo ren wei, ji lu pian su liao wang guo zhong suo cheng xian de lao dong zhe bing bu shi chun cui de shou hai zhe jue se, hui shou gong ren nei hua le gong gong hua yu dui sheng ming jia zhi de fou ren, zhuan er ren tong la ji hui shou suo dai lai de" cai fu fa zhan jing ji" jia zhi, zi jue xuan ze fang qi sheng ming jian kang.,, yin ci, gong ren zi shen ji can yu zhe sheng tai bao li, tong shi you lun wei sheng tai bao li zui wei zhi jie de xi sheng pin. ji lu pian fan fu xun wen hui shou gong ren" wei shen me zuo zhe ge bu jian kang de huo", er lao dong zhe gei chu de da an que shi dui sheng ming sheng huo jia zhi de chong xin ren ke," wei le hai zi wei le ba ba ma ma"" wei le sheng cun"" wei le sheng huo, wei le hai zi".,, kan si bei miu de fan cha, shi ze cheng xian le lao gong xuan ze de bei po xing: wei le huo qu jing ji shou ru yi wei chi he yan xu sheng ming, bu de bu yi sheng ming de zan shi ge zhi shen ti shang tong de yan dang wei qian ti. wei shen me zhong guo nong cun de nong min xu yao yi la ji hui shou ye wei sheng ne? zhe yi bei po de xuan ze zhe she di shi zuo wei shen fen ren tong yu she hui jia zhi ren ke de" nong min" de si wang.,, zai yi ci ying hou tan zhong dao yan wang jiu liang tan ji ji lu pian ren wu kun dui nong min shen fen de tong hen," li kai nong cun, jin ru cheng shi" shi ta wei lai de tu jing xiang xiang. er wei le sheng cun, gu gong peng ze bu yuan wan li cong si chuan nong cun dao shan dong zuo hui shou gong ren. qi ge meng te bao man jiang nei xie you yu xian dai hua sheng huo fan shi zai quan qiu de chuan bo huo zhe shi ling yi zhong xin de zhi xu jian gou he jing ji jin bu er bei bo duo ceng jing you xiao de sheng cun shou duan de ren cheng zhi wei fei qi de sheng ming. mou zhong cheng du shang, ta men dou shu yu" fei qi de sheng ming".,, su liao wang guo ji lu pian de jie wei po ju yi wei: gu gong peng de er zi zai la ji dui li jian dao yi zhang you ying guo tong xun gong si Lebara suo sheng chan de shou ji ka, gu zhu kun jiang SIM ka cha ru shou ji li du chu shou ji ping mu suo xian shi de wen zi:" Welcome in China, huan ying lai dao zhong guo", zhe ju hua bei die he zai ling yi ge jing tou shang: xiong xiong ran shao de la ji dui san fa de du yan yan mo le hai zi de xi xi sheng, ji lu pian de zhu ren gong yi jie zai yan wu mi man de la ji dui li fan jian la ji.,," Welcome in China" zhe ju hua suo zhi ren de shi yi ge ting jin shi jie shi chang de zhong guo, tong shi ye yi wei zhe yi ge cheng shou shi jie la ji de zhong guo.,, er zhe liang chong han yi dou nei zhi yu wei yu quan qiu la ji mao yi mo duan di zhong guo nong cun de ren de sheng ming jing yan: ta men cheng shou zhe la ji hui shou gong ye suo dai lai de shen tou yu shen ti nei bu de shang tong, tong shi ta men ye fen xiang zhe jue qi de zhong guo suo zhi ren de jing ji jin qu de sheng huo xiang xiang ji pao qi gu tu bei qi nong min de shen fen, bei qi sheng ming yu sheng tai ben shen de jia zhi.,, can kao wen xian:, 1. qi ge meng te bao man Zygmunt Bauman zhe gu lei, hu xin yi. fei qi de sheng ming M. nan jing: jiang su ren min chu ban she, 2006, 2. Scanlan John. On garbage M. Reaktion Books, 2005, 3. Gay Hawkins, The ethics of waste: How we relate to rubbish. Rowman amp Littlefield, 2006, 4. Nixon Rob. Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor M. Harvard University Press, 2011, 5. Shukin Nicole. Animal capital: Rendering life in biopolitical times M. U of Minnesota Press, 2009, 6. A L, Wang S, Jambeck J R. The Chinese import ban and its impact on global plastic waste trade J. Science advances, 2018, 4 6: eaat0131., 7. B. A. Donmez. Ecological Imperialism in the age of the posthuman: David Fedele' s Ewasteland M Rayson K. Alex, S. Susan Deborah edi, Ecodocumentaries: Critical Essays. Springer, 2016, 8. zhang jia ru. si kao la ji dong wu de ji zhong fang shi: yin du ji lu pian su jiao niu wei li J. wen yi li lun yan jiu, 2016, di 4 qi., 9. tian song. yang la ji quan qiu shi wu lian yu ben tu zheng zhi J. zhong guo zhou kan, 2006 1: 4445., 10. meng yue. sheng tai wei ji yu " ren lei ji" de wen hua jie du ying xiang, shi ge he sheng ming bu ke cheng shou zhi wu J. qing hua da xue xue bao zhe xue she hui ke xue ban, 2016 3: 1., 11. meng yue. ren lei shi ban tu shang de su liao wang guo M gong hao min, lu xiao peng zhe. zhong guo sheng tai dian ying lun ji. wu han: wu han da xue chu ban she, 2017,,, ben wen lai zi wei xin gong zhong hao: hui xiang bian ji bu ID: huixiangjf, zuo zhe: JiFeng Bookstore

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